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The Australian health system Roles of the australian qs essay Australian health system involves multiple layers of responsibility and funding provided by governments, individuals, health providers and private health insurers.
Primary care the first level of contact with the health system is mostly provided in the community by general practitioners GPswho are generally self-employed.
The national public health insurance scheme Medicare provides either free or subsidised benefits for most medical, diagnostic and allied health services.
Acute care is provided in either private or public hospitals. Public hospital treatment is free for public patientsbut public hospital care can be subject to long waiting times. A range of free or low-cost public health services, including immunisation and mental health services, are provided by community health facilities.
Subsidised aged care services, such as residential aged care, are provided by a mix of not-for-profit, private and government organisations. Medicines are dispensed by private community pharmacists who are paid by government under a Pharmacy Agreement to dispense medicines subsidised under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme PBS.
Which level of government does what? Responsibility for funding and regulating the health system is largely shared between the Commonwealth and the state and territory governments, but their respective roles are not always clear.
Broadly, the Commonwealth Government has responsibility for: Medicare, the national scheme which provides free or subsidised access to clinically relevant medical, diagnostic and allied health services as specified in the Medical Benefits Schedule MBS. Medicare is funded through a 1.
Patients pay a small co-payment.
States and territories are mainly responsible for: The Commonwealth and the states and territories share responsibilities across a number of areas. These shared arrangements are usually detailed in national agreements, such as those agreed under the Council of Australian Governments COAGand include: In addition, local governments play an important role in the health system, providing services including environmental health services such as sanitation and a range of community-based health and home-care services.
These arrangements create scope for duplication and waste to occur. Disputes over funding levels and cost-shifting between different levels of government also feature regularly.
What about private health insurance? Private health insurance provides cover for private hospital services and many out-of-hospital services not covered by Medicare such as dentistry.
Consumers with private cover can avoid potentially long waiting lists in the public system and choose their own doctor.
The Commonwealth Government provides a means-tested rebate for the cost of private health insurance premiums and penalises higher income earners with an additional Medicare levy surcharge if they fail to purchase private hospital cover.
How much does Australia spend on health? The largest component of this spending was on medications, followed by dental services. How does Australia compare internationally? Compared with other countries, Australia performs strongly across a range of important health indicators.
Life expectancy for Australian women is the third highest globally, and for men it is the fourth highest, according to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare AIHW.
For a range of diseases, outcomes are as good as, if not better than, many other developed countries.
Survival period after a cancer diagnosis is the highest in the world, as measured by mortality-to-incidence ratio.
Despite these positive signs, it is not all good news. Among OECD countries with public mammography programs, the proportion of Australian women in the target range who were screened for breast cancer in was In terms of quality of hospital care, among OECD countries Australia has the second highest rate of post-operative infections after Ireland.
Across a range of health indicators, including life expectancyincidence of chronic diseasesinfant health and smoking ratesthe health of Indigenous Australians rates more poorly than for non-Indigenous. Many lower income Australians also experience poorer health compared to those on higher incomes.
Who delivers health care?
Australia's health workforce comprises a diverse range of health care occupations working across a variety of settings. Medical practitioners, more commonly known as doctors, complete several years of undergraduate medical study, followed by compulsory 12 month internships in a hospital setting, before they can be registered as medical practitioners.
Many then spend several years training in a medical speciality, such as gastroenterology, obstetrics, psychiatry or general practice. Inthere were 87, registered medical practitioners in Australia.
Once registered, medical practitioners work in a variety of clinical and non-clinical settings, from private practice in the community, to salaried positions in community health clinics, to visiting medical officers in hospitals, to teaching and research.
Overseas trained doctors or international medical graduates perform an important role working under supervision in designated areas of workforce shortage, usually in rural and remote Australia.
Nurses and midwives deliver direct patient care to those physically or mentally ill in hospitals, aged care facilities, community health centres and in home environments.Hayley Capp, winner of the QS Leadership Scholarship, shares her top tips on how to write a winning scholarship application essay.
There is no one way to write a winning scholarship application. If you gathered together all the scholarship entries that have ever won a prize, you would find it. What is your role in your family? How closely do you identify with and affiliate with your culture?
How assimilated into the mainstream culture are members of your family and how well is that accepted by the rest of the family? Failover cluster manager roles essay day9 idra argumentative essays.
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Man’s role in the family. Up until this century, men’s and women’s roles were fairly well-defined: woman was expected to be a mother and a wife, taking care of husband’s well-being and.
australian journal of advanced nursing AJAN June ‑ August Volume 28 Number 4 IN THIS ISSUE RESEARCH PAPERS Team nursing: experiences of nurse managers in acute care setting SCHOLARLY PAPERS The nurse educator role in the acute care setting in Australia.
perceived more positively lead to higher customer satisfaction and loyalty. This study focuses on CSR activities in China, such as philanthropic, ethical, legal, and economic The Effects of CSR on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in China: The Moderating Role of Corporate Image.
Journal of Economics, Business and Management, Vol. 3.