Introduction To many, leaders are not born, but made. It is increasingly accepted, however, that in order to be a good leader, one must have the experience, knowledge, commitment, patience, and most importantly the skill to negotiate and work with others to achieve goals.
While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as "The Big Five" personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills.
Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes. Do not distinguish between the leadership attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences. Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership.
Attribute pattern approach[ edit ] Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach.
Behavioral and style theories[ edit ] Main article: Managerial grid model In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.
To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision makingpraise and criticism feedbackand the management of the group tasks project management according to three styles: They were able to narrow their findings to two identifiable distinctions  The first dimension was identified as "Initiating Structure", which described how a leader clearly and accurately communicates with their followers, defines goals, and determine how tasks are performed.
These are considered "social oriented" behaviors. Although they similar findings as the Ohio State studies, they did contribute an additional behavior identified in leaders.
This was participative behavior; allowing the followers to participate in group decision making and encouraged subordinate input.
Another term used to describe this is "Servant Leadership", which entails the leader to reject a more controlling type of leadership and allow more personal interaction between themselves and their subordinates. Skinner is the father of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future. Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. This employee does not show up to work on time every day.
The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time. As a result, the employee comes to work on time more often because the employee likes to be praised.Leadership can be defined as a process by which one individual influences others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals.
Three points about the definition of leadership should be emphasized. First, leadership is a social influence process. Leadership cannot exist without a leader and. 1 Measuring the Impact of Leadership Style and Employee Empowerment on Perceived Organizational Reputation by Linjuan Rita Men Doctoral Student.
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? Different Definitions. Books and trainings about leadership often start by defining leadership. It is based on the premise that if you can come to your own definition, then you will be more clear about whether you are successfully leading or not, and you will be able to explain to your followers how you are leading them and why.
Leadership & Organization Development Journal Emerald Article: Transformational leadership and personal outcomes: empowerment as mediator Venkat R. Krishnan. In addition to ongoing research conducted by our authors, Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner, empirical research undertaken by other scholars, graduate students, and academicians provide valuable insight into the effectiveness of leaders in a variety of settings and circumstances: amateur sports, acute care nursing, project management, online distance learning, school leadership, U.S.
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