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Cystectomy is a surgical procedure where the urinary bladder is removed, either partially partial cystectomy or completely radical cystectomy along with some surrounding structures. The procedure is performed as an open surgery or as a minimally invasive surgery through laparoscopy or robotic surgery.
Following the removal of the bladder, a diversion for the urine from the body is also created during the same surgery.
Urinary Bladder - Anatomy The urinary bladder is a triangular muscular bag located in the pelvic region. The urine produced by the kidneys reaches it via two narrow tubes called the ureters.
The bladder stores the urine temporarily till it can be emptied through the urethral opening. Sphincters circular muscle surrounding orifices control the passage of urine through the urethra.
What are the Indications for Cystectomy? Cystectomy is done for the following conditions: Bladder cancer that invades the muscle but remains confined to the bladder Other pelvic cancers, such as advanced colon, prostate or endometrial cancer where the bladder is removed along with other organs Non-cancerous conditions, which include: Severe interstitial cystitis that does not respond to other treatments.
Developmental abnormalities of the bladder Bladder diverticula outpouchings within the inner wall of the bladder. An abnormal connection fistula between the colon or the vagina and the bladder.
Localized endometriosis of the bladder. Endometriosis of the bladder is when the tissue that normally lines the uterus occurs in other organs, in this case, in the bladder Other conditions like pheochromocytomaschwannoma or endocervicosis involving the urinary bladder The presence of symptoms like severe blood loss in urine due to cavernous hemangioma or other conditions What are the Different Types of Cystectomy?
The different types of cystectomy, depending on the procedure used, include the following: In open cystectomy, the surgery is carried out through a lower midline incision of the abdomen. In minimally invasive surgery, the procedure is carried out through small incisions using special equipment.
Minimal invasive surgery has the advantages of being associated with less blood loss, less pain, early healing, and better cosmetic effect on recovery due to the absence of the long scar as compared to open surgery.
It however is costlier, requires surgeons trained in the procedure, and the operation takes a longer time. Depending on the extent of the surgery, cystectomy can be classified as: In radical cystectomy, along with the urinary bladder, the prostate and seminal vesicles in men and the uterus, ovaries and part of the vagina in females are also removed.
The intention of the procedure is to remove the entire cancer affecting the bladder to bring about a complete cure. In this procedure, only a part of the bladder is removed.The Different Types of Management Styles by Brick Jackson There are several different types of management styles when it comes to managing in the workplace and choosing the right type of style to lead with could have a big impact in terms of how your staff produces for you.
There are various type of positions in which the patient may be positioned during surgery include supine, prone, trendelenburg, reverse trendelenburg, lithotomy, sitting, lateral, and Jacknife position.
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