Life and works[ edit ] Birth and biographical tradition[ edit ] Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by VariusVirgil's editor, which was incorporated into the biography by Suetonius and the commentaries of Servius and Donatusthe two great commentators on Virgil's poetry.
Then,… General considerations It is difficult to establish a common denominator for all of the artistic expressions of the Islamic peoples.
Such a common denominator would have to be meaningful for miniature painting and historiography, for a musical mode and the form of a poem. The relationship between the art of the Islamic peoples and its religious basis is anything but direct. Like most prophetic religions, Islam is not conducive to fine arts.
Thus, the centre of the Islamic artistic tradition lies in calligraphya distinguishing feature of this culturein which the word as the medium of divine revelation plays such an important role. After the 13th century a highly refined art of miniature developed, primarily in the non-Arab countries; it dwells, however, only rarely upon religious subjects.
The typical expression of Muslim art is the arabesqueboth in its geometric and in its organic form—one leaf, one flower growing out of the other, without beginning and end and capable of almost innumerable variations, only gradually detected by the eye, which never lose their charm.
An aversion to empty spaces distinguishes that art; neither the tile-covered walls of a mosque nor the rich imagery of a poem allows an unembellished area, and the decoration of a carpet can be extended almost without limit.
A system of double intersecting arabesque bands covers the field.
Harry Payne Bingham, ; photograph, Otto E. The centre of Islamic religion is the clean place for prayer, enlarged into the mosquewhich comprises the community and all its needs. The essential structure is similar throughout the Muslim world.
There are, of course, period and regional differences—large, wide court mosques of early times; the court mosques with big halls of Iran and adjacent countries; central buildings with the wonderfully shaped domes of the Ottoman Empire.
The implementshowever, are the same: If any decoration was needed, it was the words of God, beautifully written or carved in the walls or around the domes.
At first connected with the mosques and later independent of them are schools, mausoleums, rooms for the students, and cells for the religious masters.
Worshipper in front of the mihrab in the Blue Mosque, Cairo. The minbar is to the right of the mihrab. Mathias Oppersdorff The poetry of the Arabs consisted in the beginning of praise and satirical poems thought to be full of magical qualities.
The strict rules of the outward form of the poems monorhyme, complicated metre even in pre-Islamic times led to a certain formalism and encouraged imitation.
For many pious Muslims, poetry was something suspect, opposed to the divine law, especially since it sang mostly of forbidden wine and of free love.
The combination of music and poetry, as practiced in court circles and among the mystics, has always aroused the wrath of the lawyer divines who wield so much authority in Islamic communities. This opposition may partly explain why Islamic poetry and fine arts took refuge in a kind of unreal world, using fixed images that could be correctly interpreted only by those who were knowledgeable in the art.
The ambiguity of Persian poetry, which oscillates between the worldly, the divine, and often the political level, is typical of Islamic writings. Especially in Iran and the countries under its cultural influence, this kind of poetry formed the most important part of literature.New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
Literary criticism refers to a genre of writing whereby an author critiques a literary text, either a work of fiction, a play, or poetry. Alternatively, some works of literary criticism address how a particular theory of interpretation informs a reading of a work or refutes some other critics' reading of a work.
Life and works Birth and biographical tradition. Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by Varius, Virgil's editor, which was incorporated into the biography by Suetonius and the commentaries of Servius and Donatus, the two great commentators on Virgil's vetconnexx.comgh the commentaries no doubt record much factual information about Virgil, some of their.
The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations. Ancient Greek Philosophy.
From Thales, who is often considered the first Western philosopher, to the Stoics and Skeptics, ancient Greek philosophy opened the doors to a particular way of thinking that provided the roots for the Western intellectual tradition.
Narrative point of view. Narrative point of view or narrative perspective describes the position of the narrator, that is, the character of the storyteller, in relation to the story being told.
It can be thought of as a camera mounted on the narrator's shoulder that can also look back inside the narrator's mind.