Such an approach means the bad guys are well-armed while law-abiding citizens are not. This implies that areas with more restrictive gun laws should have more crime given that an armed populace deters criminals. Reality Injury Prevention ; They both show sharp decreases in the observed rates of firearm deaths immediately following the implementation of gun reform in two countries.
The big bang cosmological theory is relevant to Christian theism and other theist perspectives since it represents the universe as beginning to exist ex nihilo about 15 billion years ago.
This paper addresses the question of whether it is reasonable to believe that God created the big bang. Some theists answer in the affirmative, but it is argued in this paper that this belief is not reasonable.
In the course of this argument, there is a discussion of the metaphysical necessity of natural laws, of whether the law of causality is true a priori, and of other pertinent issues. Introduction The advent of big bang cosmology in this century was a watershed for theists.
Since the times of Copernicus and Darwin, many theists regarded science as hostile to their world-view and as requiring defence and retrenchment on the part of theism.
But big bang cosmology in effect reversed this situation. Big bang cosmology seemed to offer empirical evidence for the religious doctrine of creation ex nihilo. Richard Swinburne, John Leslie and especially William Lane Craig2 have developed powerful arguments for theism based on a well-grounded knowledge of the cosmological data and ideas.
The response of atheists and agnostics to this development has been comparatively weak, indeed, almost invisible. Anthony Kenny suggests it in this summary statement: According to the big bang theory, the whole matter of the universe began to exist at a particular time in the remote past.
A proponent of such a theory, at least if he is an atheist, must believe that the matter of the universe came from no thing and by nothing. An example of this contrary approach among philosophers is evinced by W.
It will be my purpose in this paper to show this by establishing a coherent and plausible atheistic interpretation of the big bang, an interpretation that is not only able to stand up to the theistic interpretation but is in fact better justified than the theistic interpretation.
But my argument is intended to establish even more than this. I have elsewhere7 made the case that big bang cosmology does not lend support to theism but here I wish to make the stronger case that big bang cosmology is actually inconsistent with theism.
I will argue that if big bang cosmology is true, then God does not exist. I s hall explain these ideas in an introductory and nontechnical manner in section 2, so that philosophers who are unfamiliar with this theory may follow my argument.
One point I wish to emphasize at the outset concerns the provisional status of the big bang theory.
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|In extreme cases, in which peaceful and democratic methods have been exhausted, it is legitimate and In extreme cases, in which peaceful and democratic methods have been exhausted, it is legitimate and justified to resort to terror.|
Most of the paper, sectionsis devoted to responding to objections to the argument outlined in section 3. The Big Bang Cosmological Theory In this section the relevant aspects of the big bang theory are explained in four steps.
These aspects will constitute the four scientific premises of the atheistic argument I shall construct in section 3.
This equation suggests that if the matter in the universe is sufficiently dense, then the curvature of spacetime will become so great that it eventually curves to a point, as at the tip of a cone.
The history of a particle or light ray is a path in spacetime, and if spacetime eventually curves to a point then these spacetime paths will converge and intersect at the point. If this intersection occurs at some time in the future, the point of intersection would seem to constitute the end of spacetime.Although we are somewhat agnostic about the role of social controls like laws banning the sale of violent video games to minors, an argument against such social controls based on the conclusion that the video games have no effect seems to oversimplify the issue.
Pro-Choice Reasoning. A Fetus isn’t really a Human Being.
Moreover, the practice of repeatedly taking action—through the use of contraceptives—against the possibility of pregnancy may make it easier to take action—through abortion—to end a pregnancy when it occurs.
Laws against rape, murder, and theft, for example, are rarely followed by rapists, murderers, and thieves, but the fact that such people exist in society is the reason behind such regulations in the first place. A Big Bang Cosmological Argument For God's Nonexistence () The singularity is a violent, terrifying caldron of lawlessness.
As Paul Davies notes, 'anything can come out of a naked singularity-in the case of the big bang the universe came out. Swinburne presents an argument against the logical possibility of 2D objects and suggests. Terrorism is never justified. Peaceful and democratic means must always be used.
Even when democratic rights are denied, non-violent protest is the only moral action. The American Civil Liberties Union believes the death penalty inherently violates the constitutional ban against cruel and unusual punishment and the guarantees of due process of law and of equal protection under the law.
Furthermore, we believe that the state should not give itself the right to kill human beings – especially when it kills with .