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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Short abstract Contributing factors to the epidemic are discussed and suggestions made for its management.
This article describes the state of the epidemic in India, the main contributing factors, and suggestions for changes that should be made in the management of the epidemic. Some of the available estimates of incidence have been carried out among sex workers in Maharashtra The case reporting system for HIV in the country requires improvement as sentinel surveillance has detected HIV in states that had not reported any infections.
At risk populations Although the epidemic was initially described among sex workers, the prevalence of HIV among sex workers has more or less stabilised 6 because of targeted interventions, increased condom use, and empowerment strategies that encourage sex workers to demand safe sex from Aids india.
Meanwhile, housewives with single partners are gradually accounting for a larger proportion of infections. Voluntary counselling and testing Data clearly show that HIV has spread to all groups of Indian society. Antenatal women and surgical patients routinely undergo a HIV antibody test in most medical institutions.
On the basis of a positive result, health care is often denied to patients. In such situations, the test is often not adequately discussed with patients and a Aids india assessment not carried out.
Most of the PIs are also manufactured by Indian pharmaceutical companies. The commonly used agents have been evaluated for their safety, efficacy, and tolerability among Indian patients with encouraging results.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the disclosure of a positive test result in the absence of proper guidance and counselling may lead some patients to access inappropriate medical treatment, suffer depression, contemplate or commit suicide, and even engage in high risk activities with intent to further transmit their infection.
In India, NACO has committed to providing free antiretrovirals to persons under this initiative by the year There is a lack of trained HIV physicians in India.
Reasons for this reluctance include personal values and prejudices, an inaccurate perception of occupational risks entailed in health care, and the belief that HIV negative patients will refuse to share health care facilities with people living with HIV.
ARV drugs may be prescribed by any physician and many pharmacists dispense such drugs without prescription; some patients have been prescribed suboptimal doses of drugs.
Given that medical insurance does not cover AIDS treatment and there are comparatively few, and geographically widespread, free government ARV supplying centres, most patients fund their own treatment.
Faced with financial constraints and being unaware of the implications of suboptimal doses, patients often buy one or two of the three drugs prescribed. Many persons taking ARV treatment are transient users and poorly adherent.
The emergence of drug resistant viral strains 16 could severely affect and even wipe out the competitive advantage provided by the generic drugs offered by Indian pharmaceutical companies.
To prevent the realisation of this situation, the number of free ARV supplying centres needs to be increased and access improved. The distribution of ARV agents must also be better regulated; physicians should be accredited to prescribe HAART and pharmacists made to comply with the Indian Drug Act that prohibits the sale of specified drugs without prescriptions.
Patients are often maintained with HAART without adequate CD4 monitoring arising from a lack of affordability, poor laboratory infrastructure in the public sector, and disregard of treatment guidelines.
Of note is the impact on first line drugs. While the reduced cost of such generic drugs permitted the initiation of HAART in the country, 19 this regimen is now almost never used in more economically developed countries because of the availability of newer and less toxic agents.
HIV disease management is dynamic and knowledge among physicians treating HIV is often dated or limited to the product promotion education that pharmaceutical representatives engage in.
Physicians are still unfamiliar with the principles of switching ARV agents in patients failing therapy.
Adherence issues The availability of fixed dose ARV combinations reduces pill burden and thus facilitates improved adherence.
Interruption of therapy places them at a high risk for developing drug resistance; this occurs even more easily with NNRTIs, which have long serum half lives. Some temporarily stop treatment, restarting when adequate funding becomes available. To achieve optimal adherence, clinics should evaluate and use a number of measures such as directly observed treatment, family counselling, and intensive patient education.
Plasma viral load PVL measurement is almost never carried out because of financial constraints.Welcome to INDIA MEDICO vetconnexx.com are one of the leading manufacturers and exporters of Physiotherapy Equipment, Occupational Therapy Devices, Rehabilitation Aids and Panchakarma (Ayurvedic) Products.
End AIDS India. EAI is a national campaign by four trusted Indian not for profit NGOs that work collectively to accelerate the response to the HIV epidemic to secure a healthier future for India.
We are manufacturer and exporters of Physiotherapy Equipments,Occupational Therapy,Rehabilitation Aids,Fitness Equipments,Panchakarma (ayurvedic) Products, Exporter,India.
The Government of India estimates that about million Indians are living with HIV ( ‐ million) with an adult prevalence of % (). End AIDS India. EAI is a national campaign by four trusted Indian not for profit NGOs that work collectively to accelerate the response to the .
According to India’s National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the bulk of HIV infections in India occur during unprotected heterosexual intercourse. Consequently, and as the epidemic has matured, women account for a growing proportion of people living with HIV, especially in rural areas.